ClO₂ Description

scientist observing chemicals

What is ClO₂?

ClO₂ is an U.S. EPA approved sanitizer, disinfectant, deodorizer, tuberculocide, algaecide, fungicide and U.S. FDA recognized food additive and preservative.

Chemical Signature



Gas Vapor or Liquid


Chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) is an exceptionally effective and versatile yet low toxicity odor, mold and smoke eliminator.

ClO₂ has a 50 year history of effective use in a variety of liquid, gas & surface treatment applications including; odor, mold and smoke removal, drinking water, wastewater, bio-medical waste, medical and pharmaceutical equipment, food processing and equipment, agriculture & horticultural environments.

Only ClO₂ may be generated and used as either a ‘gas vapor’ or ‘liquid’ in the atmosphere and on non-porous and porous surfaces.

ClO₂ is non-staining, non-masking, non-corrosive with no fragrance, no VOCs, no residue, no wiping or rinsing.

ClO₂ is proven safe for use as directed on and around humans, pets, plants, food, water, materials and environment by both The Environmental Protection Agency and The World Health Organization and is currently used in the USA and EU in dozens of industries and hundreds of applications.

Chlorine Dioxide Properties
Chemical SignatureClO₂
Molar Mass67.45 g/mol
AppearanceYellowish-Green to Reddish Gas
Density1.64 g/cm3
Melting Point-74°F (-59°C)
Boiling Point49.46°F (9.7°C)
Solubilitysoluble in alkaline and sulfuric acid solutions
Solubility in water8 g/L (at 20°C)
Vapor pressure>1 atm
Henry's Law (kH)4.01 x 10-2 atm-cu m/mole

Chlorine Dioxide is a Selective Oxidizer

chlorine dioxide as a selective oxidizer table

Chlorine Dioxide is a chemical compound made up of one atom of chlorine and two atoms of oxygen.

Do not confuse ClO₂ with typical household chlorine bleach or HTH. Chlorine dioxide is actually an oxidizing agent, not a chlorinating agent.

Unlike alternative chemicals, ClO₂ reacts with organic matter through SELECTIVE OXIDATION rather than SUBSTITUTION and does not produce carcinogenic chlorinated byproducts.

ClO₂ has 2.5 times the oxidation capacity of Cl. Because ClO₂ is a strong oxidizer and works at significantly lower concentrations than alternative chemicals, it is significantly less corrosive.

No post ClO₂ application rinsing or wiping is required.

One of the most important qualities of chlorine dioxide is its high solubility in water, especially in cold water. Chlorine dioxide does not hydrolyze nor undergo a chemical breakdown reaction when it enters water.

Instead, chlorine dioxide remains intact as a dissolved gas in water.

Chlorine dioxide is approximately 10 times more soluble in water than chlorine (Cl).

ClO₂ Vaporing

Only ClO₂ may be generated and used as either a ‘gas vapor’ or ‘liquid’ in the atmosphere and on non-porous & porous surfaces.


ClO₂ is a water soluble gas which penetrates the visible and non-visible barriers spraying, fogging, mops, sponges, can not. The objective of Vaporing is to release as much of the ClO₂ from the concentrate into the atmosphere as possible.

Chlorine Dioxide (ClO₂) is a very small molecule 0.124 Nanometers in size. There are roughly 8 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules in 1 Nanometer. 1,000 Nanometers = 1 Micron. e.g., ClO₂ vapor can penetrate into very small areas.

As a gas ClO₂ will completely and evenly fill any confined space, giving it unmatched distribution and diffusion.

ClO₂ Particle Size vs. Others
HEPA filtration removes 99.99% of particles of 0.3 microns or larger
Particle/MoleculeSize in microns
Smoke From Synthetic Materials1-50
Smoke From Natural Materials0.01-0.1
Pesticides & Herbicides0.001
Plant Spores3-100
Disinfection Concentration Comparison
Chlorine Compound 1
Sodium Hypochlorite
Chlorine Compound 2
Calcium Hypochlorite
Chlorine Compound 3
Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide
Active Chlorine Dioxide100
Acid Glutaraldehyde2,200
Acidified Quat1,200
Paracetic Acid400

Comparing Chlorine Dioxide to Other Chemicals

The concentration levels needed for Active Chlorine Dioxide are far less than other disinfection options.

Data shown is from a test in a 5-log reduction after 60 seconds. Test organism: straphylococcus aureus.

Data in the table is from: The Chlorine Dioxide Handbook, Gates, D. (1998), Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.

ClO₂: Stabilized vs Activated

Active and Stabilized chlorine dioxide are not the same substance.
Stabilized chlorine dioxide (NaClO₂) products are prepared by buffering sodium chlorite (salt) with carbonate or phosphate and hydrogen peroxide. This stabilizes the chlorite, not chlorine dioxide. Stabilized chlorite is not the same as active chlorine dioxide and does not have the same oxidizing properties. It can be used as a LIQUID only.

Active Chlorine Dioxide (ClO₂) is a water soluble gas and can be used both in LIQUID & VAPOR Treatments.

Stabilized ClO₂ vs Activated ClO₂
CharacteristicsStabilized ClO₂Activated ClO₂
PropertiesLiquid applications only; does not off-gas and can not be used in VAPOR applications.

Typically must be mixed in precise A (liquid) and B (powder) measurements, with proper water pH and temperatures to achieve use concentration solutions.
Active ClO₂ is a fee radical which is simultaneously a liquid and gas state at the same time.

ClO₂ has significantly more OXIDATION capacity than stabilized.
Simply add tap water to the product or device for activation.
EffectivenessSlower bacterial kill claims – not as effective as activated ClO₂. Can only be used as a liquid.Excellent liquid disinfection and vapor deodorization capabilities – 42 kill claims – no rinse no wipe solution.
ConcentrationsCan be mixed in concentrations of 2,000-6,000 ppm for effective surface deodorization and disinfection.Can be mixed in concentrations of 100-500 ppm for effective surface deodorization and disinfection (liquid).

Can be used for vaporing airborne, porous and non-porous surfaces for deodorization and disinfection purposes.
pHSlightly alkaline at around 9pH. Non-corrosive to stainless steel and most metals.Near Neutral 6.8 pH
Non-corrosive to stainless steel and most metals.
Personal Protective EquipmentNo PPE required when mixing and handling product.PPE required when mixing and handling product.
Product LifeKeeps for up to 2 years once mixed.
No light sensitivity.
Keeps for 2-3 months after activation. Significant light sensitivity; must be capped.
DiscolorationLess subject to discoloration than activated ClO₂ when treating fabrics.Can discolor certain color fabrics (beige, tan, light colors) at higher than 500 ppm concentrations.
Typical UsagesSanitization & Deodorization:
Surfaces & Water Treatments
Disinfection & Deodorization:
Surfaces, Atmosphere, Tank & Line & Water Treatments
Industries and Applications Agriculture
Carpet Cleaning
Disaster & Restoration

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